Hommeltuie bring nuwe uitdagings vir internasionale wetgewing

01 February 2021 | Technology

Waarneming met behulp van hommeltuie is vinnig besig om ’n algemene verskynsel te word. Dit het by militêre gevegte begin, maar het reeds na ander afdelings van wetstoepassing en immigrasiebeheer versprei.
“Dit skep nuwe uitdagings vir internasionale menseregtewetgewing en internasionale humanitêre-wetgewing, want ons burgerlike vryheid kan ingedoen word soos wat hommeltuie gebruik word om ons aktiwiteite en bewegings te monitor,” sê ’n kenner van internasionale betrekkinge, dr Raenette Taljaard.
Sy het onlangs haar doktorsgraad in Politieke Wetenskap aan die Universiteit Stellenbosch (US) verwerf. Haar proefskrif, A Critical Discourse Analysis of Drone Warfare and Drone Norm Life Cycles, is onder leiding van prof Amanda Gouws by die US se Departement Politieke Wetenskap voltooi.
Taljaard het belang gestel in hoe daar wêreldwyd oor hommeltuie gepraat word, hoe mag en geteikende doodmaak gebruik word, en hoe dit genormaliseer word. Boonop wou sy uitvind wat die geopolitieke en geostrategiese implikasies hiervan kan wees.
“Die studie het bevind dat die gebruik van hommeltuie deur politici, beleidmakers en die populêre kultuur deur middel van films, genormaliseer word,” sê Taljaard. Sy voeg by dat sulke normalisering ’n “fundamentele uitdaging vir die kernbeginsels van internasionale wetgewing, internasionale menseregte-wetgewing en internasionale humanitêre wetgewing, inhou.”
Die studie merk bekommernisse oor wat sodanige normalisering vir toekomstige oorloë waar dodelike outomatiese wapens gebruik word, inhou sowel as die geopolitieke gevolge van hierdie oorloë as die vasgestelde bepalings van internasionale wetgewing oorskry word.

Internasionale insidente
“Twee spesifieke insidente, naamlik Iran wat ’n VSA-hommeltuig in sy lugruimte afgeskiet het, en ’n hommeltuigaanval op Saoedi se olievelde, het gewys hoe verskriklik ’n hommeltuigoorlog in ’n plek soos die Midde Ooste kan wees.”
Dit is dus nie ’n verrassing dat internasionale menseregte groepe, feministiese organisasies en die VN se spesiale rapporteur, die normalisering van hommeltuiggebruik teenstaan nie, sê Taljaard.
“Dit word duidelik uit 2020 se internasionale debatte tussen VN-lede oor hierdie dringende sake, wat deur die VN se spesiale rapporteur se laaste verslag oor buiteregtelike doodmaak ontketen is.
“In die konteks van die VN se ontwapeninggesprekke rakende die Konvensie oor konvensionele wapens, is kennergroepe oor dodelike outomatiese wapenstelsels, die Campaign to Stop Killer Robots en ander soortgelyke burgerlike samelewinggroepe, besig om vordering te maak in hul soeke na ’n beleid om dodelike outomatiese kernwapenstelsels te verban.”
Volgens Taljaard is daar ’n behoefte aan groter publieke bewusmaking aangaande die beduidendheid van sekere breë veranderinge in die samelewing wat deur hierdie nuwe stelsels voorgestel word.
“Ons het ’n behoefte aan meer duidelikheid en deursigtigheid, en meer omvattende samewerking tussen akademici, die burgerlike samelewing, steunwerwers en multilaterale en regionale liggame. Dit sal help om ’n beter diskoers en beleidproses oor hommeltuie te verseker, wat weer ruimte sal skep vir produktiewe invloed tot voordeel van die mensdom. Dit sal wyer strek as die huidige binêre gesprekke oor of hommeltuie ‘goed’ of ‘sleg’ is.
“Ons is reeds op ’n plek waar die toename in hommeltuie wêreldwyd plaasvind. Daar is geen twyfel dat hommeltuie en hommeltuigvermeerdering, en die samelopende en voortslepende waarneming globale onstabiliteit dramaties sal verhoog nie.”
Volgens Taljaard sal haar bevindinge onder meer beleidmakers, wetgewers en navorsers help wat op die toename van die toesighoudende staat, die gebruik en vermeerdering van hommeltuie, en die toenemende globale geopolitieke spanning en konflik fokus.

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